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By about 6000 BCE, peoples in the region had developed an agricultural economy.They began using a system of writing relatively late in their history, when they adopted the Egyptian hieroglyphic system.Finally, there was the fertile pastoral region of the south, where Nubia's larger agricultural communities were located.Nubia was dominated by kings from clans that controlled the gold mines.
Additionally, several groups known as the Hill Nubians live in the northern Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan state, Sudan.
They speak the Nubian languages, which belong to the Nilo-Saharan language family.
In the pre-dynastic period, early Neolithic settlements have been found in the central Nubian region dating back to 7000 BCE, with Wadi Halfa believed to be the oldest settlement in the central Nile valley.
643-623 BC (left), marble portrait of a Nubia denizen ca. The commemorative stela of the Axumite King Ezana indicates that two distinct population groups inhabited ancient Nubia: the Afroasiatic-speaking Kasu (Kushites) who were related to the neighbouring ancient Egyptians, and a Sudanic-speaking population that was instead related to Nilotes.
The prehistory of Nubia dates to the Paleolithic Era, around 300,000 years ago.
Based on cultural traits, many scholars believe Nubia is derived from the ancient Egyptian noun nebu, meaning gold.